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Despite the mortality associated with guns, car accidents, and falls, there is one thing that causes more deaths: drug overdose.1 In 2015, a total of 52,404 people died as a result of a drug overdose.2 Although the statistics are shocking, what’s worse is that this overwhelming loss of life was preventable.

After individuals complete an alcohol and drug detox program, they are particularly vulnerable to overdose because they no longer have a tolerance for the substances they used to use. Therefore, what was once a “normal dose” for them suddenly becomes extremely dangerous and potentially deadly.

There are plenty of things we can do to prevent overdose and protect the ones we love. Keep reading to learn more about the signs and symptoms of overdose, who is at risk, and what to do in the event of an overdose.

What Is an Overdose?

An overdose is caused by unintentional or intentional misuse of a substance, such as alcohol or drugs. An alcohol overdose is referred to as “alcohol poisoning” and the term “overdose” is typically used in regards to prescription or illicit drugs.

An overdose occurs when a person accidentally takes more than the prescribed amount of an over-the-counter or prescribed medication. It can also happen when a person purposely takes a large dosage of illicit or prescription drugs to get high or in an attempt to commit suicide.3

Symptoms of an Overdose

Each type of substance affects the body differently and every person will have a different response to those substances. As a result, the signs and symptoms of an overdose may vary greatly, especially if the person used more than one drug simultaneously. In general, there are some common signs you can look for.

If someone has overdosed on a stimulant drug, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, Ritalin, Adderall, or ecstasy, they may exhibit some or all of the following symptoms4,5:

  • Seizures
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Increased body temperature
  • Chest pain
  • Hallucinations
  • Disorientation or confusion
  • Agitation
  • Unconsciousness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Foaming at the mouth

If a person has overdosed on a depressant drug, such as methadone, heroin, morphine, or fentanyl, they may display the following symptoms4,5:

  • Disorientation
  • Unconsciousness
  • Cessation of breath or very shallow breathing
  • Gurgling sounds
  • Blue lips or fingers
  • Unresponsiveness
  • Slow or erratic pulse
  • Limp body

Who Is at Risk for Overdose?

Certain risk factors make an individual more likely to suffer from an overdose, whether it be intentional or unintentional. You or a loved one may be at risk for an overdose if4:

  • You return to drug use after not having used in a while
  • You use drugs alone
  • You’ve overdosed before
  • You recently completed a drug detox or rehab program or you have just been released from jail
  • You suffer from mental health issues
  • You are reluctant to seek medical help when needed
  • You don’t know what drug you’re injecting or ingesting
  • You have suicidal thoughts
  • You have taken a large amount of the drug all at once
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What to Do If a Loved One Overdoses

The best thing you can do to help someone who has overdosed is to call 911 immediately, then check their breathing and heart rate. If the person is conscious, try to calm them down and assure them that you are staying with them until help arrives. If the person is unconscious, try to wake them up by calling their name. If they are still unresponsive and they are not breathing, turn them onto their side. To determine if they are breathing, put your face very close to theirs and feel for air. You can also watch their chest to see if it rises and falls. If they are not breathing and you are certified to perform CPR, you should do so.4,5,6

If you know the overdose is a result of an opioid drug, Naloxone can also be administered to quickly reverse the effects of the overdose. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist that reverses and blocks the effects of opioids.7 It can be injected or sprayed into the nasal cavities, but the person administering it via injection should only do so if they have been professionally trained.

Preventing Overdose

Overdose can be prevented with a number of strategies and methods. If you or someone you love suffers from an addiction to drugs, you can help prevent the harmful effects of overdose or death with the following strategies.

  • Overdose education – First and foremost, understanding what causes overdose, what it looks like, and what to do if an overdose occurs, is a key aspect of prevention. While you may not always be able to stop an overdose from happening, the more you know, the better equipped you’ll be to handle the situation.
  • Naloxone training – Although Naloxone has been shown to be a particularly advantageous strategy for reviving a loved one or friend in the event of an opioid overdose, a lack of awareness and training on how to use Naloxone is a big concern among professionals and the public.8,9 If you know your loved one is addicted to opioids and is at risk for overdose, it would be wise to enroll in a free training program so you can learn how to safely administer it if the need arises. Some of these programs may also provide helpful information about where to get Naloxone.
  • Prescription education – If you or your loved one’s doctor has prescribed a medication to treat an illness or symptom, make sure that you understand how to take the medication and thoroughly understand the risks and side-effects that are involved. If you are uncertain about a prescription you’ve received and believe there may be other options to treat your condition, don’t hesitate to get a second opinion from another doctor.
  • Long-term treatment – Since many individuals are vulnerable to overdose right after leaving a drug detox program or rehab, loved ones should encourage their friends and family members to continue treatment for as long as possible. This will give them more time to develop a genuine and lasting change in their lives. In addition, research has shown that people need at least 90 days in drug and alcohol rehab to severely decrease or stop all drug use.10 Recovery is a long-term process and will require several episodes of treatment. Drug and alcohol detox alone will not provide long-term success in sobriety.
  • Relapse prevention – Addiction treatment that emphasizes relapse prevention will also help prevent overdose. Ongoing recovery support such as peer support groups, sober coaches or sponsors, regular drug and alcohol screenings, and safe, sober living environments are all things that will aid in preventing overdose after treatment at a detox center or rehab facility.

If you or your loved one is addicted to drugs and/or alcohol, you may be at risk for overdosing. Medically assisted alcohol and drug detox is the first step to an effective care plan to effectively treat substance abuse and mental health disorders. Please contact our admissions team today to speak to an associate about your treatment options and to learn more about our individualized drug and alcohol detox programs.

 

References:

  1. https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/infographics/drug-overdoses-kill-more-than-cars-guns-falling
  2. https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates
  3. http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/addiction/drug-overdose#1
  4. http://www.nchrc.org/programs-and-services/overdose-prevention/
  5. https://www.ncadd.org/get-help/get-immediate-help/drug-overdose-emergency
  6. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000016.htm
  7. https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/opioid-overdose-reversal-naloxone-narcan-evzio
  8. http://www.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/OverdoseReportMarch2009.pdf
  9. https://harmreductionjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7517-3-19
  10. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-drug-addiction-treatment-research-based-guide-third-edition/principles-effective-treatment
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